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Toggle 131 I thyroid uptake it falls and sources of erroneous values

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2009
Author : Fahad A Marafi, Supervisor : Henry W. Fielding
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Nuclear Medicine  

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Abstract : Radioiodine thyroid uptake measures the percentage of 131I that accumulates in the thyroid at selected times following ingestion. Our objective was to investigate the errors underlying erroneous Radioiodine Thyroid Uptake (RITU) values experienced at Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital and develop a quality assurance method. The RITU procedure requires determination of the count rate from 1311 by a NaI(TI) scintillation detector. The electronic stability of the Nal(T1) detector was investigated along with attenuation effects of the metallic rod distance indicator. Positional effects on the observed count rates were investigated for both a thyroid phantom and "'I capsules placed in a neck phantom. The effect of depth of the "'I capsules in the neck phantom was investigated. The effect of the metallic rod was investigated for a series of 79 patients over a two year period. The accuracy of the manufacturer's quoted activity for the "'I capsules were investigated over this two-year period. The Biodex thyroid uptake system was found to be stable (+ 2%) electronically over the investigation period. The metallic rod was found to be capable of introducing an attenuation of up to 40% for the '31I capsules and 4% for the thyroid phantom. The count rate for both capsule and patient followed an inverse square law thus distances need to be standardized to 0.5 cm at the 28.5 cm distance between the source and detector. Without the rod in place patient motion produced errors of 60% in the RITU values. The unknown thyroid depth introduces a 10% error per cm that the thyroid is away from the assumed 2.6 cm depth. The 131I capsules were observed to have variation of +2% when normalized to nominal activity. The 131I uptake determination requires that no attenuating rods be placed in the direct path of the scintillation detector. The distance has to be stable to within 0.5 cm thus the patient should be supine or a head rest provided. The thyroid's unknown depth limits the precision of the RITU value. The 131I capsules precision is to + 2% of the manufacturer activity thus a capsule's count rate can be verified even after use for an erroneous RIM value.

Toggle 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors in the sheep gallbladder and the sphincter of Oddi

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 1987
Author : Manar A. Karim Mustafa Rizeq, Supervisor : K. P. Bhargava
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Pharmacology  

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Abstract : There is sufficient evidence that 5-hydroxytryptamine, (5-HT) may play a physiological role in the control of motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract and its appendage, the gallbladder. This amine has met most of the criteria required for a neurotrans¬mitter role within the enteric neural system and may participate in the regulation of inter-neuronal functions. However, no investigator has so far attempted to characterize the receptor on which 5-HT acts in the biliary tract. There is some confusion about the classification of the types of 5-HT receptors and their nomenclature. Bradley et al. (1986) have reviewed the current status, and the original "D" and "M" receptors of Gaddum and Picarelli (1957) have now been equated with the 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors more recently proposed. The 5-HT1 receptors appear to be a heterogenous group and for lack of adequate knowledge, have been proposed to be called as "5-HT1-like" receptor. With the recent availability of selective agonists and antagonists of the 5-HT receptors it is possible to functionally characterize the different 5- HT receptors involved in 5-HT action. In the present study, qualitative effects produced by different 5-HT receptors were subjected to pharmacological manipulations with the object of delineating the functional role of each 5-HT receptor type in the sheep gallbladder fundus and the sphincter of Oddi. In vitro studies on the fundus of gall bladder were carried out using an isolated tissue organ bath and a microorgan bath was employed for the sphincter of Oddi rings. The result of the present study indicated that all three types of 5-HT receptors were involved in the motor responses of the sheep gallbladder fundus as well as sphincter of Oddi. In the sheep gallbladder fundus and sphincter of Oddi, the contraction of the smooth muscle was due to activation of cholinergic mechanisms, which was mediated through muscarinic receptors ptors and relaxations arose from an activation of nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) neuronal mechanism, possibly purinergic. The serotonergic mechanisms were concerned with facilitation of neuronal release of the transmitters involved in contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscle via the 5-HT3 presynpatic receptors on the cholinergic and purinergic nerves respectively. In the gallbladder fundus the "5-HT1 -like" and 5-HT2 receptors were concerned with relaxation and contraction respectively. In the sphincter of Oddi the "5-HT1 - like" and 5-HT2 receptors had functions opposite to those observed in the fundus of the gallbladder. The "5-HT1 -like" receptor was responsible for contraction of the smooth muscle, whereas relaxation appeared to be favoured by 5-HT2 receptor activation.

Toggle 99m Tc pertechnetate thyroid uptake :reliability of the test|h[thesis] /|csubmitted by Nafisah Abd..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2004
Author : Nafisah Abdullah H Kazem, Supervisor : Ghulam M. Shah. Syed
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Nuclear Medicine  

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Abstract : 99mTc pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy is a valuable procedure in many clinical situations. However, if a thyroid uptake is required, non-utilization of uptake determination by quantitative methods for this test necessitates performing a radioiodine uptake measurement. The aims of this study were: to establish the range of 99mTc pertechnetate thyroid uptake (TcTU) in euthyroid subjects; to study the correlation between TcTU & 131 I thyroid uptake; to derive a conversion formula from TcTU to 24-hour iodine uptake and to study the relationship between TcTU, clinical parameters and thyroid hormone levels. Material & Methods: This is a prospective consecutive case study conducted over a period of one year where patients referred for both thyroid uptake and scintigraphy were included. TcTU was derived from 20-minute thyroid image performed using 99m Tc pertechnetate and a gamma camera equipped with a pinhole collimator. 131 I uptake was measured using a counting probe 24 hours after oral administration of 131 I. Results & Discussion: 229 subjects (47 males, 182 females) were studied. Among 79 euthyroid patients TcTU was 1.7 + 1.4. In the hyperthyroid and subclinical hyperthyroid groups mean TcTU was 11.8 + 9.6 and 2.4 + 3.1, respectively. A highly significant positive correlation was found between TcTU and 131 I uptake (r=0.837, P<0.001). Both studies showed differences between the euthyroid & hyperthyroid groups and between the frank hyperthyroid & subclinical hyperthyroid groups. Both parameters showed significant correlations with some of the clinical parameters, TFTs, and the size of the thyroid gland. TcTU, however, in many of these comparisons had more significant and stronger associations than 24-hour 131 I uptake. A conversion equation was derived (131 I uptake =14.6 In [TcTU] + 26.9) with a correlation coefficient R2 of 0.67. Conclusion: TcTU is an additional reliable quantitative parameter which potentially eliminates the need for a separate 131 I uptake measurements in patients with thyroid disorders.

Toggle 99mTc MIBI whole body scan: A potentially useful technique for evaluating metabolic bone disease

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2011
Author : Alshaima M.S.J Alshammari, Supervisor : Abdelhamid H. Elgazzar
Faculty of medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Whole Body Imaging  

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Abstract : Metabolic bone disease due to hyperparathyroidism is characterized by increased bone resorption and new bone formation. 99mTc- hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc MIBI) accumulation in cells is controlled by metabolic function and cell viability. F

Toggle A comparative study of immune profiles of various histopatholgical types of breast cancer in Kuwai..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2008
Author : Maleehah Mohammed Sadeq, Supervisor : Farid Saleh
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Anatomy  

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Abstract : Breast cancer accounts for 30.3% of all cancer types in Kuwaiti females, and death occurs in approximately 43% of the patients. The treatment options currently available in Kuwait include the traditional surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. In Western countries, a more promising therapy that has been on trial over the past 20 years is immunotherapy. In this thesis, my attempt was to compare and contrast the immune profile of various breast cancer histological subtypes derived from Kuwaiti patients. This is mainly to determine which of these histological subtypes could be presented as the best potential candidate for immunotherapy. A study of such a nature has not been conducted before, not only in Kuwait, but also worldwide. Thirty eight paraffin-embedded-breast-cancer tumors were recruited from two major public hospitals in Kuwait (Farwaniah and Amiri). The histological subtypes pertaining to these tumors included: 1 invasive cribriform carcinoma (ICC), 2 mucinous breast carcinoma (MBC), 3 invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), 27 invasive ductal carcinoma (not otherwise specified) (IDC, NOS), 2 medullary cancer of the breast (MCB), 1 tubular breast carcinoma (TBC), and 2 phylloides carcinoma (PC). Representative 4 µm serial sections were taken from each of the above tumors. Using immunohistochemistry and image analysis, these sections were examined for the degree expression of the breast cancer antigens MUC-1, HER-2/neu, p53, and MAGE-1. They were also examined for the degree infiltration by pan T lymphocytes (CD3), T helper lymphocytes (CD4), cytotoxic/suppressor T lymphocytes (CD8), immature dendritic cells (CD1a), mature dendritic cells (CD83), and natural killer cells (CD56). The degree activation of the T lymphocytes was also determined using an antibody against the T lymphocyte-early-activation maker CD25. Moreover, IILA typing of the tumors was performed. The results obtained in this thesis showed that the breast cancer mucinous histological subtype showed moderate to extensive expression of the breast cancer antigens MUC-1, Her-2/neu, and p53, as well as moderate to extensive infiltration by CD3+, CDC, and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Moreover, these lymphocytes were not quiescent, since their early activation marker CD25 was also present in a moderate to extensive degree. The cribriform and phylloides histological subtypes showed similar expression of the breast cancer antigens MUC-1, Her-2/neu, and p53, as well as similar infiltration by the CD3', CD4', and CD8+ T lymphocytes, as compared to the mucinous histological subtype. However, the early activation marker of these lymphocytes was not present either in a moderate to extensive degree or even in a weak fashion. The same pattern observed with the cribriform and phylloides histological subtypes was also observed with the medullary histological subtype, except that the expression of the breast cancer antigen p53 in the latter was either absent or weak. All the histological subtypes studied in this thesis were found to be HLA-II positive, except for the tubular one. Moreover, the observation that none of the mucinous, cribriform, phylloides, and medullary histological subtypes, nor the remaining histological subtypes examined in this thesis demonstrated any infiltration by immature or mature dendritic cells, or by natural killer cells could not be explained at this stage, and could raise interesting research questions to be addressed in future studies. The fact that even bulky invasive tumors can undergo complete regression (destruction) following appropriate immune stimulation has demonstrated that it is indeed possible to treat cancer using immunotherapy. It is hoped that the results obtained in this thesis will add one more piece of information to what is currently available in relation to making immunotherapy successful in situations where it has failed.

Toggle A comparison between a triple antibiotic mix consisting of metronidazole,ciprofloxacin and minocyc..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2011
Author : Asma Alyahya, Supervisor :
School of Dntal Medicine, Tufts University, USA
Subject Tags : Anti-Bacterial Agents  

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Abstract : The elimination of microbial contamination of the root canal system is the key to successful root canal treatment. The purpose of the present study was to compare the disinfecting capacity of a triple antibiotic mix consisting of metronidazole, ciprofloxa

Toggle A comparison of myocardial perfusion gated SPECT studies obtained at rest and post-stress|h[thesis..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2003
Author : Mahmoud A Al Feeli, Supervisor : Ghulam M. Shah. Syed
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Nuclear Medicine  

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Abstract : A comparison between post-stress and rest gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) studies was performed in our patient population in order to assess post stress stunning and the variables causing this phenomenon. Materials & Methods: This is a prospective study of 318 consecutive adult patients undergoing stress and rest gated SPECT using a two-day Tc-99m tetrofosmin protocol. Bruce II protocol treadmill stress (n=93) or IV dipyridamole pharmacologic stress (n=225) was used for stressing. Ejection fractions and left ventricular end diastolic and end systolic volumes (EF, EDV and ESV respectively) were calculated using the Cedars Sinai's Quantitative Gated SPECT software. Perfusion defects were scored using a 20 segment scoring system. Results & Discussion: Statistical analysis, performed by applying paired t-test, showed significant differences between post-stress and rest EF and ESV for total patient population. Analysis based on the type of stress showed significantly lower EF on post stress studies for the treadmill group and significantly lower EF and significantly higher ESV on post-stress studies for the dipyridimole group (all p values <0.01). Multi-regression analysis using differences in post-stress and rest EF, EDV and ESV as dependent and stress summed scores (SSS), type of stress, delay time, previous MI and size of LV as independent variables showed statistically significant associations between higher SSS (>13), size of LV on post-stress for EDV and ESV differences. Higher volumes were noted on post-stress studies. Conclusions: A sub-group of patients who have significant ischaemia show stunning as manifested by high EDV and ESV differences and dilated LV on post stress studies.

Toggle A comparison of rectangular vs. circular radiographic collimation during simulated endodontic ther..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2013
Author : Tareq AlAli, Supervisor : Karan J Replogle
School of Dentistry, Virginia commonwealth university , USA
Subject Tags : Dental Care  

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Abstract : Rectangular collimation is used in dentistry to reduce radiation by restricti ng the x-ray beam to approximately the size of a number 2 intraoral film (3.2X4. l cm). However, this restricted beam size can lead to exposure errors. The aim of this study was

Toggle A comparison of treatment experience between invisalign aligner and fixed appliance therapy

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2014
Author : Saitah Al-Ajmi, Supervisor : Rashid. Al-Azemi
Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Dental pulp exposure  

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Abstract : The aims of our study are to: (1) record patients' experience with the Invisalign appliance versus a buccal fixed appliance (stainless steel fixed brackets) and (2), provide both general practitioners and orthodontists with a reference to help patients de

Toggle A comprehensive study on whole genome amplification(WGA) of DNA

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2009
Author : Mira Ali Bosso, Supervisor : Olusegun A. Mojiminiyi
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Genome  

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Abstract : The availability of sufficient quantity and quality of DNA is crucial to any genetic analysis, especially with the current genome wide analytical tools that require high DNA input such as Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) platforms and microarray technology. Whole Genome Amplification (WGA) methods were developed in an attempt to immortalize DNA resources through multiplying nanogram amounts of DNA to give microgram quantities that are adequate for multi-stage genetic testing. In this study we evaluated the ability of a newly modified GenomePlex* methodology to representatively amplify challenging, partially degraded DNA samples without introducing bias in the original composition of DNA. Tissue obtained from microdissection of deparaffinized formalin fixed paraffin embedded microscopic sections were mildly and randomly fragmented and GenomePlex* DNA amplification was performed. The purified amplified products were assessed by gel electrophoresis, spectrophotometer measurement and Real time quantifiler assay. Pairs of WGA amplified samples and their un-amplified counterparts were examined by several different genotyping methods and the results were comparatively analyzed. Results obtained from both metaphase and array based comparative genomic hybridization demonstrated excellent genome coverage by the GenomePlex* technique and accurate representation of genome wide copy number profile with insignificant errors observed. Real time relative quantitation investigation of targeted exonic and intronic dosages in GenoemPlex* amplified samples showed significant discrepancies from the dosages found in the pre-amplified stage with a trend toward overrepresentation in the post amplified states. It is therefore recommended to avoid the use of amplified samples in real time relative quantitation assays. Further analysis showed that GenomePlex* method was able to accurately reproduce a point mutation present in MSH2 Exon2 (226 C>T) in the WGA amplified DNA extracted from Hereditary Non Polyposis Colon cancer (HNPCC) representative blood samples This mutation was confirmed by sequencing and it the GenomePlex* technique introduced no additional mutations to the original sequence. GenomePlex* investigation by Real Time Allelic discrimination assay on two SNP's (rs2088702 and rs904661) showed that 92.8% and 82.14% of tested Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE) samples maintained SNP allelic ratios respectively. Genome wide GeneChip* analysis of 10,000 SNP's in before and after GenomePlex* amplified samples of high quality DNA showed 97.9% concordance in SNP profiles demonstrating the high accuracy of the Genomeplex* technique. GeneChip analysis of FFPE sample showed 80% concordance in SNP profile of before and after GenomePlex* amplification. Our results demonstrate the ability of the Genomeplex* technique to amplify DNA of FFPE tissue and maintain the genome wide copy number and allelic ratio evident from Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH), array CGH and GeneChip Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) analyses, but the technique was not equally reliable in real time relative quantitation assays. Such confirmation has a great impact on research and offers an opportunity to rescue precious samples and provide unlimited supply of DNA banks

Toggle A Cross-sectional epidemiological investigation into work-related respiratory symptoms in the post..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 1995
Author : Ahmd Khader Al-Shatti, Supervisor : Sherwood. Burge
Faculty of Occupational Medicine, University of Birmingham, UK
Subject Tags : Occupational Medicine  

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Abstract : SUMMARY :Following the diagnosis of an index case of a letter sorter with occupational asthma, it was deemed appropriate to initiate a survey designed to investigate the prevalence of the work-related mucus membrane and respiratory symptoms, and their potential causes. Unlike previous studies investigating the toxicity of dust in the Letter Sorting Office ( LSO), this cross sectional study has demonstrated a significant increase in work related chest symptoms (cough, wheeze, and chronic bronchitis) in Post Office workers exposed to mail bag dust which are suggestive of ' occupational bronchitis'. It showed little difference in work related mucus membrane symptoms. The study was not powerful enough to demonstrate an exposure effect on lung functions. Total inhalable dust levels measured were below the current OEL. Dust mite and mould were suggested as potential allergen contaminants of mail bag dust. An earlier walk-through visit to the post office allowed the author to propose the following aims for the study: a. To carry out an environmental hygiene survey of dust at selected sites in the letter sorting offices. b.To determine the prevalence of work- related respiratory symptoms in the exposed workers to Post Office dust in comparison to a reference group. c. To determine if there was any evidence of lung dysfunction, as identified by spirometry and Peak Expiratory Flow measurements in the exposed group . d. To determine the prevalence of skin reactions to standard antigens together with extracts prepared from the post office environment dust. A cross sectional design was adopted. Random samples from an alphabetical list of names were taken for the Letter Sorting Office workers [LSO] (100) as the exposed group and for administrative office workers (50) as the reference group. Because of the poor response rate, an additional random 80 LSO workers and 23 mail bag cleaners were added to the exposed groups. A group of 90 walkpersons (not-exposed) were cancelled from the study because of their poor response rate. In general, the best response rate for a single investigating technique was 62.1% (126/203 ) for the LSO workers and cleaners and 60% (30/50) for the office workers. Several investigating techniques were used. All participants (156) completed a self administered modified respiratory questionnaire. Additional questions were added to ascertain work-related symptoms, personal habits and occupational histories. An Exhaled CO Monitor was used to validate smoking history. Pulmonary Function Tests were administered with a dry bellows spirometer. The study parameters of interest were FEV1, FVC, FEF25-75, FEV1/FVC. Skin Prick Tests were performed using 18 allergen extracts. Seven of these were developed from Post Office dusts ( floor, ceiling, mail bag, Air Handling Unit sludge) prepared at different concentrations. Each participant was asked to record his or her Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) at home and at work using a Mini Wright's peak flow meter. Burge's methods for interpretation and performing there records were adopted. The OASYS, an Occupational Asthma System computer based package, was used to plot the records. Interpretation of the plot was performed by a PEF expert without knowledge of subject's symptoms. Workplace exposure was measured by personal and static sampling for total inhalable dust. Examination for the presence of mites and identification of their species, was carried out on bulk from mail bag dust samples. The concentrations of total suspended dust (0.06-4.1 mg/m3) were well within the threshold limit value for nuisance dust [10 mg/m3]. Several specimens of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, however, were identified. This could suggest a biological activity in mail bag dust in association with various hypersensitivities in relation to respiratory health. All participants filled out the questionnaire. A comparison between the two examined groups showed no significant differences in age, sex, smoking habits, personal and family history of allergy, and causes for hospitalisation. Non-Caucasians had a significantly higher representation in the exposed group (38.1%) compared with the reference group (16.7%) [P=0.03]. This was confirmed as Caucasians represent a significantly higher number of LSO non-respondents [P=0.049]. The LSO workers and cleaners had a significantly higher prevalence of work-related cough (p=0.002), chronic bronchitis (p=0.02), wheeze (p=0.01) and runny nose (p= 0.05). Further examinations of the prevalence of work-related symptoms among the exposed subgroups were carried out. Except for cough, work-related chronic bronchitis, wheeze, and runny nose were not effected by sex, age, race, or length of exposure. Work-related cough was significantly higher among exposed females (p=0.04), Caucasians (p=0.04), older workers (35+ years) [p=0.007]. In the exposed group, smokers demonstrated a significantly higher proportion of wheezes (p=0.01). Exhaled CO level examination showed seven (36.8%) reported smokers at level 50% to 16.7%. That is to say, our approach was good at detecting normal cases, but was poor when an attempt was made to confirm the three disease states mentioned. Overall, the PEF technique showed no significant differences in exposure levels. Ninety eight (77.8%) LSO workers or cleaners and 29 (96.7%) office workers had Skin Prick Test (SPT). Over 44% of the participants were atopic, having reacted to cat fur or grass pollen allergens. None of the reference group was atopic and allergic to mould compared with 10% of the exposed group (p=0.03). Over 42% of both groups were allergic to house dust. Allergy to dust mites was higher among the exposed group by 10% (i.e., 37% opposed to 27%). There was no pattern regarding reactions to Post Office allergens. Except for AHU sludge (10mg/ml), where the reference group showed the greater sensitivity, the exposed group reported a higher prevalence of allergy to PO dust. However there was no significant difference between the two groups. Examination o cases of work-related symptoms by a study of the SPT results demonstrated a significantly higher prevalence of work related eye irritations and runny nose among participants who reacted to dust mite i.e. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus [P=0.04]. Subjects who reacted to post office allergen showed no significant prevalence of work related symptoms. If anything, this may imply that the dust mite could explain the high prevalence of mucus membrane work-related symptoms. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that the dust exposure level in the post office is well within the Occupational Exposure Limits (OEL). However, it also identified a biological component of the dust, namely Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, which is linked to allergic-type diseases. The significantly high prevalence of work-related cough, chronic bronchitis, and wheeze among the LSO workers and mail bag cleaners is suggestive of ' chronic bronchitis'. Pulmonary Function Tests were not powerful distinguishing techniques. PEF records showed no difference in abnormality according to its evaluating parameters. SPT demonstrated that atopy was quite prevalent among the workers and that there was a strong relationship between dust mite and work-related mucus membrane symptoms. It is recommended that the proposed preventive measures in this study should be considered in concert with COSHH regulations and cost effectiveness. These include: control of exposure, health surveillance, and further future follow-up plans.

Toggle A phase 3,multi-center,randomized,double-blind,parallel-groups clinical trial comparing the effica..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2014
Author : Mohammad Sabti, Supervisor :
Faculty of the graduate school, University of Maryland, USA
Subject Tags : Science  

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Abstract : title of Thesis: A Phase 3, multi-center, randomized, double-blind, parallel-groups clinical trial comparing the efficacy and safety of intranasally administered kovacaine mist to placebo for anesthetizing maxillary teeth in adults mohammad Y. Sabti, mas

Toggle A potential role of the immune system released activating agent(ISRAA) in the regulation of mouse ..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2015
Author : Hawra's Abdul Hussain Ghulam, Supervisor : Alyaa Mousa
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : |aImmune system released activating agent   mouse  

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Abstract : The Immune System-Released Activating Agent (ISRAA) was recently described as a nervous system factor inducing the immune responses in the spleen. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ISRAA on mouse brain cell proliferation in vitro and to s

Toggle A retrospective study of philosophies and methods of restoring endodontically treated teeth in kuw..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2009
Author : Aalyah Aba-Al-Khail, Supervisor : Yousif Behbehani
Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, kuwait
Subject Tags : Tooth   Nonvital  

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Abstract : Purpose. This study aims to analyze the philosophies and methods of restoring endodontically treated teeth(ETT) in KUDC. Method and materials. Kuwait University Dental Center (KUDC) database was used to identify permanent teeth that had undergone endodontic treatment by dental students. Study patients were restricted to have at least one endodontically treated tooth done in the KUDC. Dental charts were examined to ascertain variables of interest and to verify study inclusion criteria. These variables are tooth position, core only, post type, cement type, core material. The data collected from 108 teeth were analyzed using SPSS database (SPSS 17.0 for windows).Descriptive statistics were calculated, and p- values generated using chi square analysis. Results. There is a significant association between tooth position, post type, core material used for restoring ETT with post, and teeth restored with core only (p<0.05). In addition, there is no significant difference between tooth position, crown status, and the cement type. Conclusion. Within the limitation of this study, a strong association between tooth position and several variables was found. These results may impact treatment planning if long term tooth retention is the primary goal of the treatment

Toggle A retrospective study of the reasons for extraction of endodontically treated teeth at kuwait univ..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2009
Author : Maryam Hussien, Supervisor : Amir Faisal
Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, kuwait
Subject Tags : Tooth   Nonvital  

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Abstract : Introduction. Root canal treatment results in up to 97% retention rate for the treated teeth, however about 3% of endodontically treated teeth require further treatment, including orthograde retreatment, surgical treatment, or extraction. Study design. This retrospective study analyzed all endodontically treated permanent teeth that were extracted at the Kuwait University Dental Centre (KUDC) from 2004-2009 (n = 136). Investigations regarding extractions’ indications, patients’ gender and tooth type were reported. Results. Of the 136 endodontically treated teeth that were subjected to extraction, mandibular (14%) and maxillary (13.2%) first molars were the most common. Twenty-five percent of extractions were endodontically treated at the KUDC and 75% outside the KUDC. The reasons for extraction were nonrestorable caries (37.9%), crown fracture (29.8%), endodontic treatment failure (12.5%), periodontal disease (11.4%), procedural errors (2.9%), prosthetic reason (2.5%), root fracture and orthodontic reason (1.5% each). Gender had no influence on the extraction of the tooth. Endodontic failure and periodontal disease related extractions were more prevalent in old age groups. Conclusions. The main reason of extraction of endodontically treated teeth in KUDC was found to be non-restorable caries. Other reasons include: crown fracture, endodontic failure, periodontal disease, procedural errors, root fracture, and orthodontic reason. Significant factors influencing the prevalence of extraction of endodontically treated teeth at KUDC include patient's age and whether the endodontic treatment was performed at the KUDC or not.

Toggle A statistical expert system prototype|h[thesis]:an application of knowledge engineering to managem..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 1995
Author : Seppo Lammi, Supervisor : Kalevi. Selkainaho, University of Kuopio, Finland
Subject Tags : Computer Science and applied Mathematics  

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Abstract : Statistical expert systems are applications of knowledge engineering and artificial intelligence technology. During recent years an increasing number of such systems have been constructed. These systems are usually aimed to be competent statistical advisors and guides in some predefined area of statistics, for instance in regression analysis. A statistical expert system may also be an intelligent front-end software added on to an existing statistical package. In medicine, where the unexperimental study type is a common practice, sampled data sets often contain properties that make the association at interest between an independent variable (suspected cause) and a dependent variable (response) spu¬rious. In this work two kinds of variables that may distort the associations have been considered. If the data set contains a variable that has two properties: it is statistically associated with the independent variable and it is (in some sense) a cause of the dependent variable, it may act as a confounding factor in the association considerations. To reach a correct conclusion, the confounding factor must be managed, usually by means of suitable statistical analyses. A data set may contain several confounding factors, of which each one alone or even two or more together can confound the associations. An effect modifier is another variable that may distort the association between the independent and the dependent variable. To be an effect modifier, a variable must be a cause for the dependent variable. In this work, a statistical expert system prototype has been constructed for the identification and management of both confounding factors and effect modifiers. The system uses statistical multivariate models in the identification phase and it is applicable to cohort and case-control studies. The expert system also proposes a suitable statistical analysis to the management of confounding factors and effect modifiers. The expert system has been constructed with an object-oriented expert system tool, called LEVELS ObjectTM. Knowledge representation is based on met-hods encapsulated in objects, rules and demons. The statistical calculations needed by the expert system are carried out by SPSS/PC+TM statistical software package.

Toggle A study comparing the antioxidant efficacy of ginger extracts and perindopril as one of the antihy..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2019
Author : Hedaya Ali Houmd Aldakhil, Supervisor : Muddanna S. Rao
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Streptozocin  

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Abstract : Introduction: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by slow irreversible damages of brain cells, causing gradual worsening problems with memory, judgment, and other thinking skills. AD is characterized by accumulated extra

Toggle A study of factor V mutation (arginin 506 ->glutamine) and activated protein C resistance in patie..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 1998
Author : Mehrez Mahfood Jadaon, Supervisor : K.C. Das.
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Pathology  

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Abstract : Venous thrombosis may occur due to a number of hereditary and acquired disorders of haemostatic factors and their regulatory proteins such as protein C (PC), protein S (PS), antithrombin III (AT-III), the presence of lupus anticoagulant (as in antiphospholipid syndrome) and decreased fibrinolytic activity. Recently, another hereditary abnormality of the protein C pathway, first described by Dahlback and co-workers in Leiden (1993) and designated as activated protein C resistance (APC-resistance; APC-R), has been reported to be a major risk factor for the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Bertina and colleagues (1994) provided the molecular basis of activated protein C resistance by demonstrating that a point mutation [G(guanine)-->A(adenine)] in the gene responsible for the synthesis of Factor V protein (one of the blood clotting factors) imparts a molecular abnormality to this protein, as a result of which 'glutamine' replaces 'arginine' at position 506 of the amino acid sequence of the factor V molecule. The mutant factor V, referred to as Factor V Leiden (FVL) is resistant to the inhibitory (anticoagulant) action of activated protein C (APC), causing a state of hypercoagulability with markedly increased risk of VTE. Most studies have concluded that FVL mutation is most prevalent in Caucasian populations, and very rare in the Japanese and Chinese populations, as well as in the natives of Australia, Africa, America and Greenland. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of APC resistance and FVL mutation among patients with VTE in Kuwait. Three hundred and sixty six patients with VTE were examined for APC-R by measuring the clotting response to added APC to the plasma of these patients. Patients found APC-resistant were further tested for FVL mutation by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing. Fifty eight of the 366 patients tested (15.8%) were found to have APC-resistance. Among these 58 patients, 32 patients had no other concomitant defect, four had concomitant deficiency of PC, 12 had additional PS deficiency, one had additional PS and PC deficiencies, four had lupus anticoagulant (LA), one had additional AT-III deficiency, one had additional PS and AT-III deficiencies, two had concomitant deficiency of PC in addition to the presence of LA, and one had additional deficiencies of PC, PS and AT-III. DNA analysis, including PCR and RFLP, was performed for 12 patients having APC resistance alone, all of whom were found to have FVL mutation; ten of them were heterozygous and two were homozygous. DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of the mutant A1691 allele in the two homozygous patients. Moreover, two out of 110 apparently healthy blood donors (1.8%) were found to have APC-R and to be heterozygous for FVL mutation. DNA analysis was also performed for four APC resistance patients who had additional defects; one had additional PC deficiency, one had additional PS deficiency, one had additional lupus anticoagulant (LA), and one had additional PC deficiency and also LA. None of these four patients was found to have FVL mutation. DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of the normal G1691 allele in three APC resistant patients who had additional defects (PS deficiency, PC deficiency or LA). From these studies, it is concluded that the incidence of APC-R/FVL is quite high in Kuwait, being 15.8% in patients with VTE and 1.8% in the general population. The results of this study highlight the importance of laboratory investigations for APC resistance and FVL mutation for patients with VTE in Kuwait, as being very helpful in the diagnosis, therapy and genetic counseling of these patients.

Toggle A study of nociceptin(orphanin FQ)-glutamatergic interaction in nociception

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2002
Author : Najla Taslim Syed, Supervisor : Charles W. T. Pilcher
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Pharmacology & Toxicology  

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Abstract : Nociceptin (orphanin FQ), an endogenous, non-opioid peptide is known to modulate pain in opposite directions depending upon the dose and site of administration. It displays pronociceptive effects at the supraspinal level and antinociceptive actions in the spinal cord. As 1-glutamate is involved in excitatory transmission, selective antagonists at NMDA, AMPA, and metabotropic (mGlu) glutamate receptors raise nociceptive thresholds. The study investigated the possibility that nociceptin's modulation of nociception is through an interaction with spinal glutamatergic processes. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with an intrathecal catheter. The dose-response relationship of the drugs used, Nociceptin (NC), DL-AP5 (NMDA receptor antagonist), NBQX (AMPA/KA receptor antagonist) and AIDA (mGlul&5 receptor antagonist) were established using tail immersion and paw pressure tests for acute pain and formalin test for tonic pain. For the interaction study, several doses of NC were combined with a fixed dose of each of the glutamate receptor antagonists in acute pain tests. In the tonic pain test, a selected dose of NC was combined with a selected dose of AP5, NBQX or AIDA. Tests for motor coordination following the administration of glutamate receptor antagonists were performed. NC produced dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in three different tests of nociception. Blockade of NMDA, AMPA and mGlu1&5 receptors also caused elevation of response thresholds dose-dependently. There was no additive or synergistic interaction between NC and AP5, NBQX or AIDA in thermal nociception. Administration of NC with NBQX or AIDA also displayed no significant changes in response thresholds from those seen with NC alone, in the paw pressure test. However, NC with AP5 raised response thresholds to noxious pressure in an additive manner. NC also interacted with AP5 to reduce the formalin-induced pain behaviour but subadditively. Higher doses of NMDA and AMPA/KA receptor antagonists were associated with motor disturbances. In conclusion, NC produced antinociception at the spinal level against noxious heat, pressure and chemical. Similarly, antagonists at NMDA, AMPA/KA and mGlu1&5 receptors were effective at reducing spinal nociceptive processes triggered by three noxious stimuli but higher doses of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists induced motor incoordination as a side effect. Our results imply that NC's antinociceptive effects against thermal induced-nociception are mediated through AMPA and mGlu1&5 receptors. However, NC's modulation of nociception appeared to be independent of NMDA receptors in pressure-induced nociception and is partially dependent on NMDA receptors in chemical-induced nociception. Thus, NC's modulation of nociception depends on the glutamate receptor subtype involved and the type of stimulus applied.

Toggle A study of prothrombin gene mutation (G20210A) in patients with venous thrombosis in Kuwait.

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2000
Author : Mariam Ali Al-Otaibi, Supervisor : K.C. Das.
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Pathology  

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Abstract : Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and venous thromboembolism (VTE), constitute a serious cardiovascular disorder with high morbidity and frequent mortality. Clinical and laboratory observations in the Haematology Unit and the Unit of Vascular Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University indicated that the frequency of VTE in young people in Kuwait is very high. Recently, Poort et al (1996), have reported a new mutation, prothrombin G20210A in a significant proportion of patients with VTE in the Dutch population. This mutation leads to an increased expression of prothrombin activity in plasma. Subsequent studies created the impression that this allele occurred almost exclusively in the Caucasian population and was rare or absent in the Japanese, Chinese and other Asians. In previous studies carried out in the Haematology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait Unversity, it was obsreved that some genetic risk factor (s) for VTE such as factor V Leiden, considered to be rare in Asia, occurred as frequently in Kuwait as in the Caucasian population. The present study was undertaken with the following objectives: To determine the prevalence of prothrombin G20210A mutation in patients with VTE and the healthy Arab population in Kuwait. To determine the association of this mutant allele with other known genetic risk factors in patients with VTE. The study was performed on 200 Arab patients in Kuwait with VTE and 100 healthy control subjects. PC, PS, AT-III, APC-R and lupus anticoagulant were measured by coagulation-based or chromogenic substrate assays in patients with VTE, and in 100 healthy controls. Prothrombin G20210A mutation was tested in the DNA samples extracted from the blood of all 200 patients with VTE and the 100 healthy subjects by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), following by studying the RELP after treatment with restriction enzyme (Hind III). This was followed by DNA sequencing in selected instances by dideoxynucleotide chain termination technique of Sanger et al (1977). Analysis of the results shows that 12 out of 200 patients with VTE (6%) had prothrombin G20210A mutation; eleven were heterozygous and one was homozygous. Two males out of the 100 healthy control subjects had prothrombin G20210A mutation, and both were heterozygous for this mutant allele. The plasma prothrombin activity levels were markedly higher in the patients with VTE, who showed prothrombin G20210A mutation, than in VTE patients without this mutation,and healthy control subjects Markedly increased prothrombin activity in the plasma appears to be a phenotypic expression of this mutant allele. In a significant proportion of patients with VTE, prothrombin G20210A mutation was found to coexsit with a few other genetic risk factors.

Toggle A study of siRNA-mediated HER2/erbB2 Gene silencing in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells and i..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2012
Author : Abeer Taleb Al-Khaldi, Supervisor : Saghir Akhtar
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Genes   erbB-2  

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Abstract : Diabetes mellitus is characterized by sustained hyperglycemia and it is a major debilitating disease world-wide and in Kuwait as it is associated with vascular dysfunction. Previous studies suggested that increased phosphorylation of epidermal growth fact

Toggle A study of the epidemiology and antibiotic resistance pattern of acinetobacter species in kuwait h..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2009
Author : Mona A.M Al-Hubail, Supervisor : V.O. Rotimi
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Acinetobacter  

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Abstract : enterovirus prototypes. The MxA protein was inactive against the clinical CVB I isolate, and the replication rate of CVB 1 isolate in MxA-transfected Vero cells was higher than that in mock-transfected Vero cells. Our results suggest a direct interference of MxA protein with enteroviral replication at transcription level, but with different specificity for enterovirus prototypes and clinical isolates. Genetic sequences of the clinical CVB 1 isolate and the CVB 1 prototype will eventually provide knowledge about sequences that are associated with resistance to MxA protein.sulfamethoxazole were 82.8%, 89.2%, 95.6%, 69.6%, 83.2%, 72%, 92.8%, 73.2%, 12%, 68.4%, 25.2%, 59.2%, 37.3%, 82.8%, 71.2%, 57.6%, 13.6% and 73.6%, respectively. The overall prevalence of carbapenem-resistant isolates was 37.2% and the overall prevalence of MBL-producing isolates was 74.2% and 57% by DAT and MBL Etest, respectively. Sixty-five of the 93 carbapenem-resistant isolates were positive for the different genes tested investigated by PCR; 37 were positive for b/a/mp_i, 17 biavim_i, 43 b/aviim_2, 24 blaspm_i, 32 b/a0xA-23 and 1 b/aoxA-24. PFGE demonstrated the dissemination of 3 clones among the different hospitals, while the other 3 were restricted to one particular hospital. In conclusion, resistance to carbapenems has reached unacceptable levels in Kuwait and MBLs as well as oxacillinases are highly prevalent among Acinetobacter spp. in our hospitals. Continuous surveillance and stringent infection control measures are needed to control this dissemination of carbapenem-resistance strains.

Toggle A study of the induced epithelial to menesenchymal transition in human breast cancer

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2012
Author : Iman Almohri, Supervisor : Yunus Luqmani
Faculty of medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Breast Neoplasms  

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Abstract : De novo and acquired resistance to antiestrogens presents a serious problem in the treatment of women with estrogen receptor (ER) +ve breast cancer, and has been under intense investigation using various in vitro cell models. Recent data from this labor

Toggle A study on the immune responses of children to different rotavirus serotypes and genotypic charact..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2006
Author : Rand Wajdi Marmash, Supervisor : Alexander. Pacsa
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Medical Microbiology  

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Abstract : Group A rotaviruses are the single most common etiologic agents of severe diarrhea in infants and young children (< 5 years). Rotavirus infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality of infants in the developing countries and an important cause of morbidity in the same age group in the developed countries which leads to an increase in the hospital costs. The disease burden resulting from rotavirus infection has prompted intense efforts for vaccine development and implementation of rotavirus vaccine into children's immunization program. Before the introduction of any rotavirus vaccine in a country it is important to know: 1) The immune status of children to the infection caused by the circulating rotaviruses, and 2) The genotypes of rotaviruses present in the country. In view of these, our study was aimed at: a) Determining the prevalence and level of rotavirus-specific antibodies in sera of children < 5 years old to three serotypes (G1, G4 and G9) of rotaviruses and b) Establishing a sensitive and specific molecular method for genotypic characterization of rotaviruses present in Kuwait. The presence and level of rotavirus specific antibodies were studied by a modified version of the Fluorescence Focus Reduction Neutralization (FFN) assay and the ELISA Antigen Blocking (E-Ag-bl) test. Both methods were established in the laboratory. For rotavirus genotyping, a multiplex One-Step Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (OS-RT-PCR) had been established. The prevalence of rotavirus antibodies was determined in sera of 120 children aged between 1 month and 5 years. The highest rotavirus-antibody prevalence rate (94%) was found to serotype G1, followed by G4 (68%) and G9 (47%), respectively. The high level and prevalence of antibodies detected to rotavirus type G1, suggests that this is the dominant rotavirus present in Kuwait. By the multiplex One-Step Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction, the rotaviruses could be genotyped in 16 (48.5%) of 17 rotavirus-ELISA positive stool samples of children less than 5 years old, with the dominance of GI (n=10). Results indicated that the majority of severe rotavirus diarrhea cases are caused by rotavirus genotype G1, but other types are also present. The live attenuated monovalent vaccine, Rotarix (GSK), planned to be introduced in Kuwait contains the GI genotype, is expected to provide protection to most of the rotavirus infections.

Toggle A survey of patient satisfaction with dental care at Kuwait University dental clinics|h[thesis]|cF..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2006
Author : Fahad S Al Hussaini, Supervisor : Khalaf Al-Shammari
Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Dentistry  

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Abstract : Objectives: The aims of this study were to examine patient satisfaction with dental care provided at Kuwait University Dental Clinics (KUDC) and preference for receiving information about their treatment. Methods: Patients seeking care at Kuwait University Dental Center were recruited for the study. Patients were asked to complete an anonymous, structured, self-completed questionnaire about the level of satisfaction of the provided dental services. The questionnaire recorded the patient's age, nationality, and gender, as well as items assessing the level of satisfaction with various aspects related to patient treatment on a 5-point scale. Finally, patients were requested to answer questions assessing their desire to be informed about the treatment plan and if their experience in KUDC was better than other places. Survey results were examined with descriptive statistics and univariate analyses. Results: The overall response rate for the survey was 70% with 105 patients participating. The majority of patients (92%) attending KUDC reported having a better experience than previous treatment elsewhere. Only 2% reported that they had better experience in other places and 6% had no differences. Patients who received treatment elsewhere agreed that dental students listened to their comments. The result also showed a significant association between having a past history of treatment elsewhere and preference for being told the entire treatment plan and details of the procedure beforehand. Conclusion: The majority of surveyed patients treated at KUDC were satisfied with their care regardless of age, sex, nationality, duration of treatment at KUDC and past history of treatment elsewhere. History of treatment elsewhere was signigicantly associated with patient preference for being informed of the treatment plan and details of the procedure beforehand.

Toggle A survey of pediatric dentists in Kuwait on their usage of hand over mouth technique and physical ..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2009
Author : Abrar Al Omar, Supervisor : Abdulaziz A. Hassan
Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, kuwait
Subject Tags : Dental Care  

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Abstract : Purpose: The purpose of this study is to emphasize the utilization of hand over mouth technique and physical restraints among pediatric dentists in Kuwait in their management of children receiving dental treatment. Methods: Thirty pediatric dentists practicing in Kuwait participated in this study by filling out a questionnaire. The questionnaire highlighted the usage and preference of ten behavior management technique with the emphasis on Hand over mouth and physical restraints usage. Results: Thirty correspondents participated in this survey. Of the ten behavior management techniques, tell-show-do was the most preferred and used technique. The least used technique was general anesthesia; whereas hand-over-mouth (HOM) exercise was the least preferred among participants. Older age groups (75%) used HOM more than younger age groups. Pediatric dentists with access to general anesthesia physically restrained their patients less than people without. No other significant associations were found regarding both techniques. Pediatric dentists who spend less time on each patient used conscious sedation more than dentists spending more time. Parental presence technique was used mostly among dentists with more than 10 years of experience. Also, general anesthesia was used mostly among pediatric dentist between 35 and 50 years of age. Conclusion: Usage of tell-show-do, distraction, and positive reinforcement are communicable techniques that are highly recommended over techniques that have long-term consequences such as HOM and physical restraints. Their usage should be further researched and evaluated.

Toggle A survey on general oral health knowledge and behavior among Kuwaiti population- A telephone inter..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2012
Author : Muneera Al-Sabt, Supervisor : Qasem Al-Omari
Faculty of dentistry, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Oral Health  

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Abstract : Objective: The aim of this study was to assess basic dental health knowledge and attitudes among Kuwaiti population in relation to socio-demographic factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 1000 subjects, 911 responded with a response rate of 91.1%.

Toggle Absorption and accumulation of cadmium from cereal grains

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 1987
Author : Anncatherine Moberg Wing, Supervisor : , University of Umea, Sweden
Subject Tags : Pathology  

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Abstract : Cadmium (Cd) is a potentially toxic trace element. Cereal grains contribute one-third to one-half of the Cd exposure via the diet. Among cereal grains, wheat generally contains the highest Cd concentration and the bran and germ fractions contain more Cd than the endosperm. An increase in the consumption of unrefined grains may cause an increase in the body burden of Cd if an increase in the exposure to Cd via the diet leads directly to increased Cd absorption and accumulation. However, there is evidence that certain factors may reduce the availability of Cd for absorption from the diet. The purposes of these studies were to refine an atomic absorption spectrometric method for measuring the accumulation of Cd from diets with low, naturally occuring concentrations of Cd, to evaluate the extent to which Cd is accumulated from different milling fractions of wheat and from different cereal grains, and to determine to what extent the presence of certain minerals and mineral-binding factors in the diet and the iron (Fe) status of the individual affect Cd accumulation from cereal grain diets. The results of the method studies showed that the amount of Cd in the liver and kidneys of rats after six -weeks on different diets and the retention of 109Cd in these organs three weeks after the ingestion of of 109Cd-labelled test meals of the diets were in agreement on the fractional and total accumulation of Cd from the diets. To a first approximation, the accumulation of Cd in the liver and kidneys in rats appears to be the product of the separate effects of the concentration of Cd in the diet which is available for absorption and the Fe status of the rats. The Cd concentration in grains varied by a factor of five between whole wheat and rye and the amounts of Cd accumulated in rats from diets with whole grains were nearly proportional to the Cd concentrations in the grains. The fractional accumulation of Cd was lower in rats given diets with whole grains or wheat fractions high in fiber and phytic acid than in rats fed endosperm wheat diets. This lower fractional Cd accumulation did not compensate for the high Cd concentrations in whole wheat and wheat bran. The fractional accumulation of Cd in the liver of rats is inversely related to their Fe status. The fractional Cd accumulation in the liver of rats with low Fe status was as much as ten times that in rats with high Fe status. The Cd accumulation in the kidneys appears to be even more sensitive to Fe status. The accumulation of Cd in human placenta supports these conclusions. Women who eat diets with less cereal grain fiber and who also maintain their Fe stores during pregnancy generally accumulate less Cd in the placenta than those who eat more grain fiber and/or have lower Fe status. On the basis of these results, it is recommended that as much as possible of the dietary fiber from cereal grains should derive from grains with low Cd concentrations. It is also imperative that the diet provide sufficient Fe and other nutrients to promote Fe status and thereby limit Cd accumulation.

Toggle Activation of TLR7- dependent signaling pathway in response to enterovirus infection

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2011
Author : Marwa I.A Alkhabbaz, Supervisor : Wassim Chehadeh
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : TLR7 protein   human  

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Abstract : Enteroviruses (EVs) are single stranded RNA viruses consisting of more than 60 distinct serotypes associated with many serious diseases. The exact mechanism by which an EV is able to evade innate immunity and cause tissue damage still remains unknown. In

Toggle Adherence of staphylococcus epidermidis to pharyngeal epithelial cells mediated by lipoteichoic acid

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 1989
Author : Sahar Abedown Sultan Essa, Supervisor : T. D. Chugh
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Medical Microbiology  

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Abstract : We have investigated the role of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in mediating the adherence of Staph. epidermidis to human pharyngeal epithelial cells (PEC). Surface LTA on Staph. epidermidis was extracted with 45% aqueous phenol and subjected to Sepharose 6B column chromatography. Elution profiles resolved two major peaks. The first peak was further demonstrated to be LTA by its ability to sensitize human type 0 erythrocytes. This peak was considered to represent purified LTA on the basis of its low protein and nucleic acid content, high erythrocyte sensitizing activity and high phosphorus content. Deacylation of LTA was carried out by mild ammonia hydrolysis to remove the fatty acid moieties. Complete deacylation of LTA was confirmed by two biological assays: heat coagulation of albumin and erythrocyte sensitizing activity. Pretreatment of PEC with LTA extracted from Staph. epidermidis induced marked inhibition of adherence of the homologous strain. The inhibition was dose-dependent and saturable. Such effect was not observed with the deacylated derivative of LTA (dLTA) indicating the importance of the lipid moiety in this phenomenum. Pretreatment of PEC with LTA of Staph. aureus or S. pyogenes significantly inhibited the adherence of Staph. epidermidis to PEC though the inhibition was less marked. Similar to the results obtained with dLTA of Staph. epidermidis, a deacylated preparation of LTAs of Staph. aureus or S. pyogenes were totally ineffective in inhibiting the adherence. On the other hand, pretreatment of Staph. epidermidis with either human serum albumin or anti-LTA antibodies resulted in a significant inhibition of further adherence of the bacteria to PEC. The data generated in this study strongly suggest that LTA is the major adhesin of Staph. epidermidis for binding to PEC.

Toggle Adherence of staphylococcus epidermidis to pharyngeal epithelial cells mediated by lipoteichoic acid

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 1989
Author : Sahar Abedown Sultan Essa, Supervisor : T. D. Chugh
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Medical Microbiology  

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Abstract : We have investigated the role of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in mediating the adherence of Staph. epidermidis to human pharyngeal epithelial cells (PEC). Surface LTA on Staph. epidermidis was extracted with 45% aqueous phenol and subjected to Sepharose 6B column chromatography. Elution profiles resolved two major peaks. The first peak was further demonstrated to be LTA by its ability to sensitize human type 0 erythrocytes. This peak was considered to represent purified LTA on the basis of its low protein and nucleic acid content, high erythrocyte sensitizing activity and high phosphorus content. Deacylation of LTA was carried out by mild ammonia hydrolysis to remove the fatty acid moieties. Complete deacylation of LTA was confirmed by two biological assays: heat coagulation of albumin and erythrocyte sensitizing activity. Pretreatment of PEC with LTA extracted from Staph. epidermidis induced marked inhibition of adherence of the homologous strain. The inhibition was dose-dependent and saturable. Such effect was not observed with the deacylated derivative of LTA (dLTA) indicating the importance of the lipid moiety in this phenomenum. Pretreatment of PEC with LTA of Staph. aureus or S. pyogenes significantly inhibited the adherence of Staph. epidermidis to PEC though the inhibition was less marked. Similar to the results obtained with dLTA of Staph. epidermidis, a deacylated preparation of LTAs of Staph. aureus or S. pyogenes were totally ineffective in inhibiting the adherence. On the other hand, pretreatment of Staph. epidermidis with either human serum albumin or anti-LTA antibodies resulted in a significant inhibition of further adherence of the bacteria to PEC. The data generated in this study strongly suggest that LTA is the major adhesin of Staph. epidermidis for binding to PEC.

Toggle Adherence of staphylococcus epidermidis to pharyngeal epithelial cells mediated by lipoteichoic acid

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 1989
Author : Sahar Abedown Sultan Essa, Supervisor : T. D. Chugh
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Medical Microbiology  

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Abstract : We have investigated the role of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in mediating the adherence of Staph. epidermidis to human pharyngeal epithelial cells (PEC). Surface LTA on Staph. epidermidis was extracted with 45% aqueous phenol and subjected to Sepharose 6B column chromatography. Elution profiles resolved two major peaks. The first peak was further demonstrated to be LTA by its ability to sensitize human type 0 erythrocytes. This peak was considered to represent purified LTA on the basis of its low protein and nucleic acid content, high erythrocyte sensitizing activity and high phosphorus content. Deacylation of LTA was carried out by mild ammonia hydrolysis to remove the fatty acid moieties. Complete deacylation of LTA was confirmed by two biological assays: heat coagulation of albumin and erythrocyte sensitizing activity. Pretreatment of PEC with LTA extracted from Staph. epidermidis induced marked inhibition of adherence of the homologous strain. The inhibition was dose-dependent and saturable. Such effect was not observed with the deacylated derivative of LTA (dLTA) indicating the importance of the lipid moiety in this phenomenum. Pretreatment of PEC with LTA of Staph. aureus or S. pyogenes significantly inhibited the adherence of Staph. epidermidis to PEC though the inhibition was less marked. Similar to the results obtained with dLTA of Staph. epidermidis, a deacylated preparation of LTAs of Staph. aureus or S. pyogenes were totally ineffective in inhibiting the adherence. On the other hand, pretreatment of Staph. epidermidis with either human serum albumin or anti-LTA antibodies resulted in a significant inhibition of further adherence of the bacteria to PEC. The data generated in this study strongly suggest that LTA is the major adhesin of Staph. epidermidis for binding to PEC.

Toggle Adrenal steroidogenesis and expression of retinoid -x-receptor B|h[thesis]:|cGhosson Adel Zaitoun.

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2008
Author : Ghosson Adel Zaitoun, Supervisor : Behling. Cheng
Biochemistry, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Biochemistry  

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Abstract : Adrenals utilize cholesterol to synthesize glucocorticoids which are important for the body to deal with stress. Disorders of adrenal steroidogenesis have been linked to development of hypertension, depression, obesity and type-II diabetes. Although adrenal steroidogenesis is principally regulated by the pituitary hormone ACTH, this reaction is also controlled by many other mediators through complex and diverse signaling systems. Elucidation of functions of these mediators would help in prevention and in the development of treatments for the disorders. Nuclear receptors, such as retinoid-X-receptor (RXR), are transcription factors which mediate gene expression in regulation of growth, differentiation, apoptosis and lipid metabolism. RXR is expressed in three isoforms (gas,gb sand gc ©® sTo target gene transcription, RXR is activated by 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA) or by certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), namely, arachidonic acid (C20:4), adrenic acid (C22:4), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5) and cervonic acid (C22:6). It is noteworthy that adrenal lipid droplet-stored cholesterol ester predominantly incorporates these RXR-specific PUFAs. RXR has been reported to mediate the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis by enhancement of cholesterol-efflux from cells in mouse liver and Sertoli cells. Thus, it is logical to speculate that RXRgb smay be involved in regulation of adrenal availability of cholesterol for steroid production. If this speculation is correct, then the adrenal expression of RX1213 should be diminished by ACTH-stimulation in order to minimize cholesterol-efflux, thus conserving cholesterol for steroid synthesis. To investigate this hypothesis, the aim of the present study was to characterize adrenal RXRP in the male Wistar rat, with emphasis on its gene expression, ligand availability and response to acute ACTH-stimulation. Using biochemical techniques such as polymerase chain reaction, mass spectrometry, chromatography and Western blotting, the present investigation revealed that: (a) Adrenals express RXRga sand RXRgbs, but not RXRgc® ¨sb) The RXR¬specific PUFAs, but not 9-cis-RA, are available in the gland. (c) Stimulation of rats with ACTH for 60 minutes resulted in an increased plasma level of corticosterone, but this was accompanied by a 44% reduction in the level of RXRgb smRNA and a 10% decrease in RXRgb sprotein level. The substantial reduction of RXRgb smRNA and the marginal diminution of RXRgb sprotein could be a 'prelude' to a down-regulation of cholesterol efflux, conceivably for conservation of cholesterol for steroid synthesis. The mechanism by which ACTH exerts influence on adrenal expression of RXRgb sgene and the effect of chronic ACTH-stimulation on this expression both require further studies. In conclusion, the present data not only support the hypothesis that adrenal expression of RXRgb sis influenced by ACTH-stimulation, but also shed light on future investigations of the role of RXRgb sin steroidogenic reaction

Toggle Aesthetic perception of gingival form by dentists and lay people

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2009
Author : Nasser Al-Mutar, Supervisor : Khalaf Al-Shammari
Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Gingival Diseases  

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Abstract : Objectives: The aim of the study is to examine the aesthetic perception of the gingiva of dentists and lay people, and the factors that influence this perception. Methods: 291 questionnaires were distributed among 55 dentists, 39 dental students, and 197 lay people. The subjects were asked to rate their own smile overall, the shape of their lips, the shade and shape of their teeth, and the general appearance of their gingiva using the visual analogue scale (VAS). In addition, subjects were asked to rate the importance of the following features in an attractive face: hair, hair line, eyes, eyebrow, nose, skin, ears, lips, teeth, chin, and shape of head. Moreover, smiling photographs were altered with one of six common anterior aesthetic discrepancies in varying degrees of deviation, including variation in crown length, crown width, open gingival embrasure, gingiva to lip distance, midline position, and recession. The subjects were asked to choose the most aesthetic photographs of these categories. Results: Statistically significant differences between dentists and lay people were detected in smile satisfaction and, shape and shade of the teeth satisfaction. Both dentists and lay people rated the teeth as the most important feature in an attractive face. Dentists were more accurate in choosing the ideal pictures of crown length, crown width, mid-line position and open gingival embrasure. However, there was no significant difference in choosing the ideal pictures of gingiva to lip distance and recession. Conclusion: Dentists and dental students are more critical in their aesthetic perception of the gingiva and smile than lay people. Dentists and dental students were more satisfied with their smile, looks of their gums, and the shape and shade of their teeth than lay people. Dentists, dental students, and lay people ranked teeth as the most important feature for an attractive face.

Toggle Age related normal variants of distal femoral and proximal tibial growth plates :scintigraphic pat..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2008
Author : Eiman Shaker Al-Awadi, Supervisor : Abdelhamid H. Elgazzar
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Nuclear Medicine  

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Abstract : The skeleton is a dynamic structure that changes during the normal physiological processes of growth and remodeling as well as in response to pathological insult. In infants and children, it is well recognized that bone-seeking tracer accumulates in greater amounts in the growth plates of immature skeleton. Scintigraphic appearance of the normal growth plate changes with age. Full investigation of age-related patterns of growth plates uptake on bone scintigraphy has not been reported. The objective was to evaluate age related pattern of distal femur and proximal tibia growth plates in children on bone scintigraphy. A retrospective analysis of bone scans for pediatric age group was done. Anterior and posterior views of the whole-body scan were visually reviewed by two nuclear medicine physicians to establish characteristics of the growth plates in the distal femur and proximal tibia regarding the shape of the plate, segmental pattern of radiotracer uptake through the plate. Quantitative assessment was performed also to complement visual assessment findings. Eighty-nine patients were selected for the study. Various patterns of growth plate's uptake were recognized in four different age groups. In infants and children below age of five, the plate appeared ovally shaped with uniform uptake. Later it appeared as linear with nonuniform uptake till the age of ten. In adolescence, additionally the majority of cases showed a peculiar pattern of biconcave and nonuniform uptake. After the age of fifteen, the plates showed progressive fading of activity with gender difference. Excellent agreement was obtained between visual and quantitative assessment regarding the segmental uptake of the plate. The data showed age-related patterns of growth plate's uptake on bone scintigraphy. Recognition of these appearances is important because lack of such knowledge may lead to misinterpretation of growth plate abnormalities.

Toggle Age-related changes in retinal pigment epithelium|h[thesis]/|cHeba Al Hosaini.

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2008
Author : Heba Al Hosaini, Supervisor : Glen. Jeffery
Institute Of Opthalmology, University College London, UK
Subject Tags : Ophthalmology  

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Abstract : The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a monolayer of hexagonal organized cells located between the choriocapillaris and the neurosensory retina. As the RPE is implicated in a range of eye diseases, an understanding of its structure and ability for self renewal is critical for therapeutic strategies. Analysis of human RPE cells at the extreme periphery of the retina reveals a population larger in size than those in the centre, they are highly irregular and form an annulus of 4-5 mm. Although binucleation in humans is rare, 10% of these cells are binucleated. In the central region these large binucleated cells are only found adjacent to drusen, which are age-related lipid-rich deposits. Compared with humans, rat RPE is relatively homogeneous, however, the majority of its cells are binucleated, particularly in the central region. Human and rat RPE also shows different patterns of aging. In humans, the centre of the retina shows a significant reduction in RPE cell density with age, which was not observed in aged rats. The capacity of mature RPE cells to enter the cell cycle was investigated using a proliferative marker in rats. Here a subpopulation of mature peripheral RPE cells had the capacity to enter the cell cycle, and one-third of these cells completed cellular division. As RPE proliferation occur in response to retinal detachment, this was performed on rats and the patterns of gene expression in RPE examined. An increase was observed in nestin, PCNA and Ki67 expression, which was also confirmed at a protein level by immunohistochemistry. These results suggest that RPE cells have the capacity to proliferate and may possibly differentiate if subjected to appropriate stimuli in a normal retina.

Toggle Age-related sodium balance in rats drinking taurine plus saline

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 1992
Author : Rana Mustapha Temsah, Supervisor : M. J. McBroom
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Physiology  

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Abstract : It has been repeatedly shown that animals drinking a combined solution of taurine (T) and saline (S) developed hypernatremia within a few days. In the present study, the effect of a combined solution of 0.1M T+1.5% S on sodium and water balance for eight days in two age groups was studied. Experiments were performed on adult (65-85 days old) and weanlings (28-32 days old) rats. Each group was subdivided into the four treatment regimes: C (Tap water); T (O.1MT); S (1.5% NaCl) and T+S. In the two age groups, Na+-balance (Na+ intake - urinary Na+ excretion) was positive and stable in groups C, T and S throughout the treatment period. Plasma sodium concentration (PNa) remained nor-mal in the C, i.e. 150 mmol/L or less, T and S drinkers except that weanlings drinking S developed moderate hypernatremia (151.5+1.7 mmol/L). In the adult T+S drinkers, the mean PNa had risen from 145.4+1.2 mmol/L to 160.0+6.4 mmol/L by day 4 and Na+-balance became negative towards the end of the experimental period. These changes persisted throughout the treatment period. Weanlings, on the other hand, drinking T+S developed a dramatic increase in the PNa starting from day 2 (161.0+4.9 mmol/L) and increased to a level of 204.7+8.2 mmol/L through to the end of the experimental period. Na+-balance fluctuated during the treatment period and followed a decreasing trend. Among other parameters, in adults and weanlings, no appreciable differences were noted between C and T. Solution con¬sumption (and thus, Na+ intake) and urine volume were elevated in both S (2-3 X C) and T+S (4-7 X C), with the higher values in T+S. Urine Na+ concentration (C = 210-291 mmol/L) was also elevated in both S (>410 mmol/L) and T+S (>330 mmol/L) and urine osmolality was reduced by 20-30% in S and by 50-60% in T+S, but more so in T+S. In S drinkers, age differences were detected in the elevated PNa (147.6 mmol/L in adults; 151.5 mmol/L in weanlings) and urine volume of weanlings (up to 50% higher) as compared to their adult counterparts; whereas, no significant differences were found in the other parameters. On the other hand, weanlings drinking T+S displayed significantly higher values for solution consumption, PNa, urine volume, sodium excretion rate and water balance as compared to the adults receiving the combined solution. Based on the data, the water balance explains the ability of the S drinkers to maintain a normal PNa as they excreted part of the volume consumed to eliminate the Na+ excess. By contrast, T+S drinkers excreted much more of the volume consumed in an unsuccessful attempt to restore PNa to normal. This response was much more exaggerated in the weanlings than their adult counterparts as their PNa continued to increase and was associated with an earlier death. This suggests that rats drinking T+S face a homeostatic dilemma in which attempts at Na+-balance (given the reduced ability to concentrate urine) occur at the expense of water conservation and/or osmolality regulation.

Toggle Alterations of hepatic and extrahepatic cytochrome P450-mediated drug biotransformation in chemica..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2003
Author : Danah Sabah Al-Hadeedi, Supervisor : Milad S. Bitar
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Pharmacology & Toxicology  

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Abstract : The main objective of this study was to examine the diabetes-induced alterations in haem and haemoproteins as well as the influence of adrenalectomy (ADX) upon these parameters in female Wistar and Sprague-Dawley (SD) diabetic rats. Animals were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg, IP) and seven days thereafter, they were subjected to ADX, followed by replacement therapy with glucocorticoids. Twenty one days post ADX, animals were decapitated and the saline perfused liver was removed and subjected to differential centrifugation. The activities of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (7-EROD), 7-pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (7-PROD), tolbutamide hydroxylase (TH) and aniline hydroxylase (AH) in hepatic microsomes were subsequently measured in control, diabetic and ADX-diabetic Wistar and SD rats. Total cytochrome, haem and cytochrome b5 were also measured in each group. An enhancement was observed in the enzymatic activities of 7-EROD, 7-PROD, TH and AH in both Wistar and SD diabetic female rats when compared to their control values. There was also an increase in the haem, total cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b5 levels in diabetic Wistar and SD rats when compared to controls. Subjecting the diabetic animals to ADX resulted in a reduction in the catalytic activities and levels of the aforementioned haem and haemoproteins when compared to the diabetic Wistar and SD rats. The renal microsomal 7-EROD activity was found to be suppressed in Wistar diabetic rats. While the ADX-diabetic Wistar rats showed no significant changes, SD rats exhibited an increase in 7-EROD activity compared to their diabetic counterparts. From these results and previous data, it was concluded that there is an adrenal constituent(s), which is responsible for the overall induction of the haem and haemoproteins in diabetes.

Toggle Amplification of ESR1 Gene in Kuwait breast cancer patients /|cAbrar Al-Haddad.

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2011
Author : Abrar Al-Haddad, Supervisor : Fahed Al-Mulla
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Breast Neoplasms  

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Abstract : Around two-thirds of Kuwaiti women with breast cancer are estrogen receptor (ER)-positive. The reason behind this selection is not known. Estrogens, ERs, and their cellular responsiveness have been widely studied in humans, animal models, and cell lines.

Toggle An assessment of the reliability of pulp testing on young permanent poterior teeth

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2009
Author : Tahani Budair, Supervisor : Muawia A Qudeimat
Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Dental Pulp  

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Abstract : Objective: the aim of the study was to assess the reliability of the two commonly used diagnostic pulp tests, the cold and electrical pulp tester, when used on young sound permanent teeth, and to assess the correlation between root maturation stages and t

Toggle An investigation of the interaction between GABA-ergic and nociceptin mediated modulation of nocic..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 1999
Author : Ahmed M Mohammed, Supervisor : Charles W. T. Pilcher
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Pharmacology  

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Abstract : Nociceptin is a neuropeptide that has been identified recently as a ligand for the opioid receptor-like 1 (ORL- 1) receptor. It was found to resemble the endogenous opioids in structure and distribution. The opioids act on the nervous system to block the action of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA. This blocking effect dis-inhibits the analgesia producing spinal descending pathways that are normally inhibited by GABA. Being similar to the opioids indicates a possible role of nociceptin in pain modulation. In fact nociceptin was found to decrease nociceptive thresholds in some experimental conditions and to increase them in other situations. However, the mechanism of action, which is not well understood yet, was shown not to involve the opioid receptors. Furthermore, its interaction with GABA has not been explored thoroughly as yet. Hence, this experimental work was designed to study whether nociceptin-induced effects are mediated through a GABA-ergic mechanism. The experimental tests that were used in measuring nociceptive responses in rats included tail-immersion and paw-pressure tests. The results showed that nociceptin produces an analgesic effect at doses that cause no motor impairment. This effect, however, was neither antagonised nor potentiated by GABA-ergic agonists and antagonists. In conclusion, nociceptin¬mediated modulation of nociception is independent of GABA-ergic systems in the spinal cord.

Toggle Anti-apoptotic and neuroregenerative effects of soluble protein fraction of the epidermal secretio..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2018
Author : Taiba Abdullah Al-Arbeed, Supervisor : Waleed Renno
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Nerve Crush   

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Abstract : Crush injuries (axonotmesis) occur from an acute traumatic compression of the nerve resulting in many different degrees of neural damage. Significant cell death and axon degeneration occur as a result of this damage, leading to permanent functional defici

Toggle Anti-contractile effect of cooling in the rat aorta:influence of gender and perivascular adipose t..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2016
Author : Yasmeen Mohammad Rafique, Supervisor : Mabayoje A. Oriowo
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Neoplasms  

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Abstract : The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of gender and perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) on the anti-contractile effect of cooling in the rat aorta. Phenylephrine (PE)-induced concentration-dependent contractions of aorta segments from male

Toggle Anti-inflammatory effect of some novel enaminones inhibition of LPS-stimulated TNF-a release from ..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2008
Author : Hanan Adnan Zamil, Supervisor : Charles I. Ezeamuzie
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Pharmacology & Toxicology  

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Abstract : The enaminones are synthetic amino compounds whose structures contain a ketone group adjacent to a carbon-carbon double bond. In addition to their use as synthetic intermediates, enaminones have been shown to display a range of pharmacological activities such as anti-convulsant, P glycoprotein (Pgp) modulatory, histaminergic, and molluscicidal activities. However, relatively little is known about their possible anti-inflammatory effect. The purpose of this study was to screen a series of novel enaminones for anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo and to explore their mechanism of action. The ability of the compounds to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF-ga srelease from isolated mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro and to decrease LPS-induced elevation of plasma TNF-ga slevel in vivo were determined as indices of anti-inflammatory activity. Of the 17 compounds tested, three (BRG12, BRG13, and E166) were found to be active in inhibiting TNF-a release in vitro, with IC50 values of 4.2, 4.6, and 0.9 µM, respectively, and almost complete inhibition by all the 3 compounds at 30 µM. Interestingly, these 3 active compounds were the only ones characterized by the presence of hydrazine (NH-NH) functional group in their structure. Dinitrobenzyl-substitution on the simple aromatic ring attached to the amino group resulted in complete loss of activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of enaminones could not be explained by induction of cell death and was characterized to be reversible and appeared to be exerted at the early stages of cell activation. Inhibition of TNF-ga sexpression at the mRNA level does not seem to be the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of enaminones since treatment with enaminones failed to decrease LPS-induced TNF-ga smRNA upregulation. In addition, the anti-inflammatory activity of enaminones observed in vitro could not be reproduced in vivo. The reason for the discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo results is not clear, but may be related to the pharmacokinetic properties of enaminones, such as rapid decomposition or metabolism in vivo. These results show for the first time that some enaminones, especially those with NH-NH functional group, possess strong anti-inflammatory effect exerted on cytokine production in vitro, but this effect is not a result of inhibition of mRNA expression. Further work is needed to clarify the underlying mechanism of their in vitro action and the lack of activity in vivo.

Toggle Antiviral activity of MxA protein against different types of human enteroviruses

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2009
Author : Hayfaa A.A Abdulkareem, Supervisor : Wassim Chehadeh
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Antiviral Agents  

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Abstract : Human enteroviruses cause a broad spectrum of acute and chronic human diseases including respiratory infections, meningitis, encephalitis, pancreatitis and myocarditis. Up to now, no antiviral agents that are active against enteroviruses are available for clinical use. The type I interferon-induced MxA protein has been shown to inhibit the replication of an enterovirus, coxsackievirus B4, but not cardioviruses such as encephalomyocarditis virus and mengo virus, all members of the Picornaviridae family. Human enteroviruses consist of more than 60 distinct serotypes against which the antiviral activity of MxA was not yet investigated. The main aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of different types of enteroviruses commonly found in Kuwait to the antiviral activity of MxA protein. The entire MxA open reading frame fragment was subcloned into pcDNA3.1 expression vector using Gateway* technology. Vero cells were then mock-transfected or transfected with the MxA expression vector, and the antiviral activity of MxA protein was assessed against different enterovirus prototypes and one clinical coxsackievirus B1 (CVB 1 ) isolate. The percentage of inhibiton of expression of enteroviral RNA and capsid VP1 protein in MxA-transfected Vero cells was then determined. MxA protein was expressed in 96% of transfected Vero cells. Following infection of MxA-transfected Vero cells with enteroviruses, the expression of enteroviral RNA was inhibited by up to 99%, and that of VP1 protein by up to 85%. However, there was a difference in the percentage of inhibition of enterovirus replication between the different enterovirus prototypes. The MxA protein was inactive against the clinical CVB I isolate, and the replication rate of CVB 1 isolate in MxA-transfected Vero cells was higher than that in mock-transfected Vero cells. Our results suggest a direct interference of MxA protein with enteroviral replication at transcription level, but with different specificity for enterovirus prototypes and clinical isolates. Genetic sequences of the clinical CVB 1 isolate and the CVB 1 prototype will eventually provide knowledge about sequences that are associated with resistance to MxA protein.

Toggle Antiviral gene expression during human coronavirus OC43 infection /|csubmitted by Meshal Samir Bei..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2018
Author : Meshal Samir Beidas, Supervisor : Wassim Chehadeh
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Coronavirus   

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Abstract : Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) is a respiratory virus that usually causes common cold. However, it has the potential to cause severe infection in young children and imrnunocornpromised adults. Both SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV were shown to express proteins

Toggle Application of phagemid-AAV vector in gene therapy of paediatric brain cancer

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2018
Author : Mariam M I H I Al-Bahrani, Supervisor : Amin Hajitou
Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, UK
Subject Tags : Brain Injury   

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Abstract : Medulloblastoma and Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) are childhood brain tumours with high malignancy, the former being the most common and the latter is the most aggressive. Although medulloblastoma patients have a high likelihood of long-term sur

Toggle Application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to the analysis of viral nucleic acid

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 1992
Author : Hana Fayez Mustafa Badawiyah, Supervisor : D. M. Olive
Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Medical Microbiology  

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Abstract : A non-radioactive method for constructing biotin labeled DNA probes for hybridization analysis was developed. The methodology is based on the incorporation of biotinylated nucleotides during probe synthesis by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The incorporation of biotin into the PCR reaction mixture had no measurable effect on reaction efficiency or yield of PCR product as compared to standard nucleotide mixtures. A two heat step cycling procedure consisting of 30 rounds of denaturation at 94°C for 2 minutes followed by annealing at 55°C for 2 minutes was found to be optimal for the reaction. Probes constructed in this manner performed well for both dot blot and Southern blot hybridization formats, however, the assay detection limits for each format were lower than those reported for radiolabeled probes. In a blind study detecting human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA in the urine of renal transplant recipients, the probes performed better than those labeled with biotin by alternative means. However PCR analysis was more sensitive than any of the hybridization assay used. HCMV was detected by direct PCR analysis in two samples which were nagative using the PCR-generated biotin labeled probes. In order to demonstrate that the reason for this discrepancy was due to levels of virus present below the sensitivity limits of the hybridization assay, we developed a method for quantitating virus in urine specimens based on the PCR. Using this method we demonstrated that the two discrepant urines contained virus at a level of approximately 4000 particles per ml of urine. While this low level of virus was detected by PCR, it was clearly below the detection limits of any of the other assays used including hybridization assays using PCR-generated biotin labeled DNA probes. Both methods should be useful in detection and quantitation of viral pathogens as well as facilitating studies of the molecular relatedness of clinically isolated viruses.

Toggle Assessing general dentists involvement in the dental treatment and management of diabetic patients..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2011
Author : Dena Ali, Supervisor :
Faculty of medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Dental care and health  

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Abstract : A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MAsters of Art(Dental Science) Columbia University College of Dental Medicine.

Toggle Assessing patient's opinion about necessity of providing medical history information to the dentis..

, Publication Type:Theses, Publication Year : 2006
Author : Anood Al Jasser, Supervisor : Ebraheem. Behbehani
Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Subject Tags : Dentistry  

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Abstract : Objective: To determine how willingly dental patients reveal medical health history information, and factors that may limit their willingness to reveal such information. Method: A survey involving 250 adult patients from 5 dental centers recorded demographic data including age, sex, nationality, and educational level to determine significant differences in response within these various groups to questions related to their willingness to reveal health history information. Results: the majority (90.8%) of the participants believed the presence of the medical health history form in dental clinics was necessary. Most of the participants (92.2%) agreed about the importance of providing the dentist with all medical information. The rest refused due to different reasons: unimportant information (3.4%), privacy (2.9%), or afraid of treatment refusal (1.5%). Conclusion: Since not all the patients are providing accurate information in the health history form, it is essential for the dentist to exercise special care when reviewing a patient's health history and to ensure that the patients understand all of the questions on the form. Dentists must also take universal precautions while treating all patients. Finally, it is the responsibility of the entire dental team to clearly educate the patient regarding the importance of accurate information in the health history.

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